Part I of this study on recent Indian strategic realignments begins in the 1990s, when the country’s near-bankruptcy forced policymakers to alter economic and foreign policy priorities. The government of Narasimha Rao first enacted reforms to liberalise finance and trade, and then, sensing the changing international dynamics brought about by the end of Cold War, set about to improve relations with the United States and China. Key characteristics of Rao’s approach included a determined political will, the absorption of expert advice and the circumvention of protocol to enact swift and decisive changes. Part II of this study turns to the government of Narendra Modi, who, upon entering office in 2014, spoke of delivering ‘India’s Century’ by resetting India’s relations with countries across the world. While significant reforms—such as reorienting supply chains back to India, or in agriculture and industry—were undertaken, these are yet to achieve fruition. The rise of China and its effects in South Asia have made the task of strategic reset harder to achieve.